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The Celts are a group of Indo-European peoples, the birthplace of which was probably the area of today's southern Germany and Bohemia, and central-western France. The greatest expansion of the Celts reached the so-called the La Tene period, the beginning of which dates back to around 450-400 BC and the end of which dates back to 150-100 BC. During this period, the Celts conquered all of today's France, the British Isles, a large part of Spain, but also reached the Balkans and even Asia Minor! It is worth adding that the Celts developed a high-standing culture, with an extensive religious system, with extensive defensive settlements (oppida), the area of which sometimes covered several hundred hectares, but also with highly developed iron processing. This, of course, influenced the Celtic military. Quantitatively, the armies deployed by the Celts were dominated by infantry, but a very important role on the battlefield was also played by cavalry, which in the 3rd century BC largely displaced the use of chariots in continental Europe. It is likely that the Celtic cavalry was served by a social elite that could afford to costly maintain a combat steed. At the time of entering into military contacts with Rome, i.e. in the 4th century BC, during the conquest of northern Italy in the 3rd century BC and - especially - during Caesar's battles in Gaul (58-52 BC), the Celtic cavalryman was armed with a round or a rectangular shield, he often wore a helmet of iron or bronze, and as weapons he used spears or a javelin and long, double-edged one-handed swords. It is worth adding that during the struggle with the Roman army in the 1st century BC, the Celtic cavalry most often used javelins.
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